5 Causes of Low Compression in a Car Engine (and How to Fix)

Proper compression enables gas and air mixing in engine cylinders, powering operation. But compression issues spell trouble.

Learn what the common causes of low compression in your engine are and the steps needed to diagnose where the exact issue lies.

low compression engine

Top 5 Reasons for Low Compression in a Car Engine

There are many reasons why low compression might exist in a car engine. Sometimes there will be low compression in just one cylinder of the engine and other times, low compression may exist in ALL cylinders.

Generally speaking, if you have low compression in one cylinder, the engine will start but you’ll likely experience misfires and your vehicle will run rough. If you experience no compression in ALL cylinders, your engine simply won’t start.

Here are the top 5 causes of low compression in a typical car engine.

#1 – Holes in Piston

hole in piston

You probably know that the cylinders of an engine have pistons in them. These pistons are typically made from aluminum alloy and are supposed to be able to handle the power of combustion.

However, if there is overheating in the engine, then hot spots will get onto the piston. After a while, these spots will burn holes right through the piston. Once that happens, gases will leak through these holes and cause low compression to take place.

See Also: What Does a Spark Plug Blow Out Sound Like?

#2 – Leaky Valves

bent valves

The top of each cylinder contains exhaust valves and intake valves. Air and fuel go into the intake valve for the combustion process. The gases which form from this go out of the exhaust valve.

If these valves become overheated, they could start to leak gas prematurely out of them. Once this happens, you have low compression.

More commonly, the valve seals can over time become worn which allows the gasses to escape, thus causing cylinder compression to go down.

Related: 6 Causes of Oil in the Spark Plug Wells

#3 – Worn Timing Belt

bad timing belt

There is a timing belt or chain in every engine which connects the camshaft and crankshaft together. If the timing belt were to be broken or damaged, the camshaft would no longer be able to turn anymore.

This means it cannot open or close the exhaust valve or intake valve properly. As a result, the combustion in the cylinders will be ruined and no gases can get released. So, you have low compression because of it.

#4 – Head Gasket Failure

blown head gasket

There is a gasket between the area on top of the engine where the cylinder head is connected. If for some reason the head gasket becomes faulty and starts to break, then it will leave a tiny hole in between the cylinder and its head.

This is known as a blown head gasket and causes the gases in the cylinder to leak out of the hole in the gasket. Then you will have low compression and a poor performance. If the head gasket fails between two cylinders, it can cause a compression leak in both.

See Also: Replacement Engine vs New Car

#5 – Bad Piston Rings

symptoms of bad piston rings and valve seals

Overheating can cause the rings of the piston to brake or become damaged. This will cause carbon gases to leak through the rings because they are no longer able to seal them inside of the cylinder. As you’re probably aware by now, when there’s this type of leak, low compression results.

Related: Is Piston Slap Serious? (or Just an Annoyance?)

How to Fix Low Compression

The first thing you need to do is use a compression gauge and test to see if there is actually low compression in your engine. This process will usually take 45 minutes so make sure you have some free time on your hands.

If you don’t have a compression gauge, then you can either purchase one or take the car to an auto repair shop and have them complete a pressure test for you. If they find there is low compression, the next step is to inspect the cylinder, piston, valves, and gasket to see if any of them are damaged or broken.

From there, you can replace whatever is damaged. However, this will be a lengthy and costly job because it involves taking out the engine. Be prepared for that.

Here’s a good video explaining how to properly perform a compression test:

Mark Stevens


  1. I have a Renault Clio mk2 1.2 16v is having a low compression n misfires plus black smoke. Please help me .

    1. Low compression usually means you need an engine rebuild, but not always. You could try doing a leak down test to see if you are losing compression through the top end (valves) or the bottom end (piston rings). If you’re losing compression through the bottom end, you’ll probably need a full engine rebuild. Taking the heads off to clean the valves and do a valve job is slightly easier but will still be fairly labor intensive.

  2. Thanks so much for posting your very informative videos. PLEASE HELP!!! I will start with the question I am hoping you can answer, explain the backstory and end with the same question to keep things organized. I genuinely appreciate any advice and feedback you can offer. Do you think it is possible for a rodent nest (10″x6″ mind you!!) to cause no compression in cylinder 5? I have an expensive problem on my hands. I was driving my 2015 Toyota Highlander (102, 000 miles well maintained with proof of service) it started shaking and check engine light, Check all wheel drive and check traction lights came on. Brought it to our local mechanic and they found a rodent nest on the engine (engine bay I believe), upon further inspection they found that cylinder 5 had no compression, but they weren’t exactly sure why and suggested we take it to the Toyota dealership for additional diagnostic. They found the same issue (still don’t know why, but they don’t seem to think it could be rodent related, but again aren’t certain what caused the issue). Because there is no other reason given, do you think it is possible that it could be rodent related? It just seems very coincidental, but because I don’t know enough about cars it is hard for me to prove although I am trying to dig up what I can and found you 🙂 Toyota and the insurance company didn’t see any obvious wire chews so they closed my claim saying it must be “wear and tear” except I have our steady service records and the mileage is less than a standard lease contract- we have a 2010 Rav 4 with 30,000 more miles that is serviced the same and is running great- the mechanics said this is “very rare for a 2015 Toyota” and said I essentially got the short stick and that cars break, and now I was forced to replace the engine as the only solution ($8,200 +450 in diagnostic fees). Toyota was hoping they would find an actual reason (and of course I was hoping it was rodent related as it would be covered by insurance), but they took out the engine and still have no distinct reason for the engine failure/ cylinder misfire, but said maybe it could be debris that made it way into the engine somehow or a mechanical issue (broken arm??). Anyway because that differs from chewed wires, I reopened the claim thinking it could potentially be nest material (there was lots of material) or mouse food “debris”- there just isn’t another explanation at this point. My family has been without our vehicle for almost 1 month and it has really made our lives difficult. Anyway, sorry for the long story, but the insurance company is sending out a “engine expert” tomorrow morning to look at the engine and prob try to disprove that it could be rodent related and it feels like it is my last chance to make a connection and prove that it is possible. I found some articles that say maybe an issue or obstruction in the intake?/ debris somehow getting by the air filter and clogging or making its way into the cylinder?/ debris getting sucked into the air filter then the intake (intake runners or intake manifold)?/ Debris getting caught in the valve train preventing the valves from closing causing no compression?/ a block in the throttle plates??/ Issue with the knock sensor injector?? I will ask more questions tomorrow, do you have any advice on how the rodent nest could have caused no compression in cylinder 5? Thank you in advance, Kristin

    1. Where did they find the rodent nest? Was it in the air intake or elsewhere in the engine bay?

      I think it’s extremely unlikely that a rodent infestation could cause low compression. The valves in an engine don’t open up very far; certainly not far enough for a rodent to crawl into the combustion chamber.

      The only way I could think of this conceivably happening is if rodents made their way into the air intake past the air filter. If they put nest material in the intake and this material made its way into the engine, this could cause low compression as the nest material wears against the pistons, rings, and cylinder walls. If this is the case, it should be pretty easy for the dealership to determine if they are tearing down the engine, though.

      This possibility of this happening is not proof that it happened, though. I think the engine expert who is coming out should be able to determine or rule out this possibility. Ask them to take pictures of the air intake and combustion chamber so you can see for yourself.

      What were the numbers from the compression test?

    1. You can do a leak down test to determine where you are losing compression. Once you know where the leak is coming from, a mechanic can give you a quote on what it will cost to fix and you can determine what you want to do with your engine.

      For more involved repairs like valve jobs, head gasket replacements, and engine rebuilds, many people will pay a mechanic to have the work done. Some people will opt to put a new engine in their car to keep the car on the road (and sometimes you can swap to a more powerful engine). Many are fed up with their car breaking down and go buy a new one. A few will just drive the car into the ground and do nothing.

      You will have to determine what is best in your specific situation based on the problem that is discovered, your budget, and your use case for the vehicle.

  3. I have a 2003 Jeep liberty V6 3.7 liter. I replaced the Head gasket, got the heads machined and had the tec do a valve test. They said the valves and seals were fine. Put it all back together turned it over once and it started right up. It sounded like I had a lifter tick so I looked up how to replace them. I put good quality oil in after a week of driving. I used cheaper oil the first time to clean up anything and collect dirt from the job. The day after the oil change I was driving to go get a new lifter, I stopped at a light and it died like I had stalled out.

    I have changed:
    -Spark plugs
    -Throttle body switch
    -PCV- (it was broken, thought it was a vaccum leak)
    -Checked fuel pump (new)
    -Checked fuel rail
    – Even pulled off the cylinder head cover to see if the lifter was frozen or rocker arm popped off. (nothing)

    It cranks strong and timing change is intact. There is one code for an O2 sensor but nothing else…I dont think its getting compression. While inside I looked at the cylinder walls and the honing marks were still there and no built up carbon was left on the walls…Possible cylinder ring? I am at my wit’s end…

    1. If you don’t think it’s getting compression, I would perform a leak down test so you know exactly where it’s leaking from. That’ll tell you pretty quick if you have a stuck exhaust valve, for instance. Wherever you hear air rushing out of, that’s the source of the leak.

      In the case of a bad piston ring, air should hiss out of the oil filler cap or dipstick hole because the air would be rushing past the piston rings into the crankcase.

  4. I have a Nissan Bluebird Sylphy and one of my cylinders has low compression.What could be the possible cause for this?

    1. There are many potential causes for low compression. Low compression could be a result of worn piston rings, which would also give you excessive blow by. You could also have worn valve seals, excessive carbon buildup around the valves, or a head gasket failure. Low compression could also be caused by a combination of these things.

      Since most of these things require some involved engine work, I recommend you bring the vehicle to a professional for some more testing, along with a diagnosis of the main cause and estimate to repair it. From there, you can make an informed decision about what to do with the car.

  5. What was the check engine light, and what were the compression numbers on your engine? I am pretty skeptical that you have low compression on 3 cylinders, especially since it was running fine before. Symptoms of low compression include burning oil, blue smoke out of the exhaust, and rough idle.

    Since you brought the car into the shop for diagnostics and now it won’t run, I would expect the shop to at least get you up and running without an additional charge. If you were not experiencing any of the aforementioned low compression symptoms, I would definitely get a second opinion.

    1. to fix the light I need a new fuel filler neck. But my compression was 60 on one and 90 on the other two. My car was giving me zero signs of giving out.

      1. Those two problems seem to be unrelated. Yeah, 60 and 90 psi is a big difference. You don’t want big variations between cylinders when you do your compression test. 60 psi is very low, 90 psi may also be low depending on the engine.

  6. I am wondering if I need a new engine. Took my car in for check engine light for smog test. And now my car won’t start when it ran just fine. They say I have low comp on 3 cylinders and that I need a new engine. What happened in between the testing for light and after when my car won’t start anymore?

  7. Can you assist me I’m using polo vivo it looses compression early in the morning but I took the car to fault finding but nothing seen. So what must I do to fix that problem

    1. You’ll have to do some troubleshooting to figure out why the compression is low. If you’re not comfortable doing this, your best bet is to take it to a shop you trust to diagnose the problem.

  8. I have a question, I have a dual carburetor and only one jet was working in the carburetor, it’s a four-cylinder engine that I have and only three cylinders are working, number four cylinder has pressure and there’s spark to the cylinder, but still not working, what’s the problem

    1. I have Opel Astra 1.8 x18xe engine the problem is if am driving there is no power ,when am going up and is jecking as if Petrol is too low and the other thing the oil light is coming but oil is full.help me am desperate boss

      1. An oil light on could also mean you have low oil pressure, especially if you’re sure the oil level is full. Perhaps your oil pump or oil pressure sensor are going out.

  9. hey i have mitsubishi rvr 4cylinder in it it was running fine shut it off it lost compression on all cylinder and it wont start what can be the possible reason, it only have 26000km on it

  10. I have a 2005 Dodge Ram 1500 with the 4.7L engine. I have low compression in cylinders 2,4,6. What could be the possible cause? The engine can be loud at times, but other than that it still runs fine. The power and responsiveness still feel fine.

  11. I have a hyundai v6 that I ran for about 200 miles on 5 cylinders because 1 had no spark. Was this enough time to cause any problems?

  12. I have VW polo 2012 tdi i have recently changed the turbo of it by local mechanic and still it is giving a huge amount of black smoke from exhaust, low pickup problem is also there(while no light is there on console).
    Could anyone help.

  13. Hey i have a 2003 CL type S and i have low compression on three cylinders do i have to rebuild the engine or is it cause of a bad timing belt? This started happening when i change the coils and spark plug. And I’m sure it’s not the coils or spark plug bought 12 of each and it still run rough and turns off when idle. And sometimes the car runs good other times it runs horrible. Any advice?

  14. I have a 2005 BMW torqua..stopped running cranks but no start. Shop said no compression to cylinders. Is the engine blown

  15. Tom, I have the same issue with my Cadillac CTS 05. #1 has %95 leak. If I open oil cap I can feel lost compression escaping. to do farther diagnosis they have to tear down the engine. With the mileage I have in it 255k I am coming to the point to take tough decision. The car still drive strong but it wont pass inspection that’s due in couple weeks.

  16. I had head gasket fail due to spark plug electrode failing out and damaging 2 exhaust valves. I replaced valves that were damaged and reseated all valves replaced oil stem seals and put new gasket on. Now will not start. Piston 1 has 75psi p2 80psi p3 30psi 4 75psi. Timing is correct. Strong fuel smell in sump. When head went was doing 70mph. It blown the heater core out and shot water into the sump. Sorted these out but won’t start. Stuff to turn by hand with no plugs in. Is it worth fixing engine is 24 years old. Is it rings oil test or wet test is still same psi. Thanks for reading.

  17. hi, my 2002 Mazda b3000 6cyl 3.0 liter has been running rough so changed plugs wires , coil.Still ran rough. took in and had compression check. found #6 had really low compression.They say I may need a valve job or worse.Body is in great cond. so it’s going to be a tough decision whether to do this.Is it worth the cost?

  18. Hi! It appears my Dodge Ram 1500 4.7L has one low Compression cylinder #8.
    Can the Rockauto Engine Rebuilt Kit be used without pulling the engine out of the car?

    1. Jorge,
      You have to inspect the spark plugs, leakage in the cylinder head valves, and the cylinder head gusket, and also the coolant leakage in the horse pipes, if required replace new or repaire it

      1. My 99 Nissan frontier truck was well taken care of. All of a sudden the engine knocked hard after high octane gas was put in it. Now it won’t start. The auto shop guy says no compression on top of engine. He tells me 2600 for a used engine. If it’s just a broken timing chain would it best to fix it or buy a used engine?

        1. Hi, I have a 2012 Ford Expedition El Limited. Initially lost power and started knocking. I bought a timing chain kit and had it replaced. Ran it a little hard, lost power again. This time knocking was much louder. This car went withought an oil change for a while. Flushed it a few times and there was an improvement in sludge removal. I still suspect the timing chain was not properly installed or maybe sticky/dirty valves. Mechanics keeps suggesting installing a new or used engine. I just think that is the easy and more expensive route. What do you think might be the cause and what best feasible option would you recommend?

      1. I am dealing with a 2011 ford E150 we found multiple misfire cilynder or code P0300, P0302, P0303, P0304, P0304, P0307. We checked and found low compression. Also lately I have been loosing antifreeze coolant t to the point that the reservoir becomes completely empty, my question is from the information I’ve been reading, is it possible that the head gasket is causing the problem? I’ve noticed antifreeze in one spot near the head gasket.

        1. Yes I’m a certified 4×4 mechanic. And I will say you have a blown gasket around a cylinder. Pull the plugs abs the one that looks steam cleaned is the culprit. Luckily it’s not blown where oil and coolant meet. It’s being burnt off in that cylinder. Pull head and look for cracked heads also. Have it decked. Put new gasket on. Retorque exactly to spec with new bolts. And that’s your answer

      2. Will low oil level cause misfire or low Compression. Was a quart and a half low code said misfire in all cylinders. Added oil still half quart low but runs great

        1. Low oil will definitely cause low compression as parts begin to wear from lack of lubrication. I’m not sure about the misfires, but it’s plausible. Try to make sure your oil is always topped off, because low oil is one of the fastest ways to destroy your engine.

      3. If your burning OIL from your engine the smoke out of your exhaust will be WHITE🤦🏽‍♂️

      4. I have audi A3 2008 2T, there is no compression in the 2nd cylinder, other 3 cylinder is fine. It is shaky when you drive and does not take pick up more than 25-35.
        what can be the issue. can it be fixed ? How much it will cost to fix it.

        1. A leak down test will tell you exactly where you’re losing compression. It could be a valve that’s not closing properly or worn piston rings, for instance. I’m sure it can be fixed. Hard to say how much it will cost to fix without knowing the exact problem, but it probably won’t be cheap.

  19. Hi, I have a VW Polo 9n3 1.6 Petrol engine. There’s low compression in 3 of the 4 cylinders and a heavy misfire with the car cutting off under low revs. Would it be recommended to overhaul the engine or replace it with a another engine instead. What’s the best feasible option.

    1. Honestly I would just rebuild with rebuild kit rather than overhaul cause it cost cheaper and its more guaranteed than a used engine.

      1. Thanks Angel,
        How much would a rebuild kit cost and how many hours would it take?
        Secondly, if paying someone / tech to to do this, what is estimated pricing?

      2. Really? Overhaul and rebuild is the same thing. If you replace rings and gaskets you will also need to replace rod and main bearings, have the valve seats ground or replaced and replace every gasket on the engine which should come with the overhaul(rebuild) kit. Also clean all mating surfaces well with a scraper and emery cloth or you will have leaks. this is no quick tasks. Also the cylinders need to be honed out and inspected for grooves or damage. If that happens have the block cut and sleeved. But if you’re likely to do that, save yourself some trouble and go the cheaper rout with another rebuilt engine you can buy online guaranteed and warrantied. With ’70 and ’80 cars about 8 hours from pulling the engine, rebuild, to complete installation. Now days about two or three days min. to do it right despite book hours. Engine swap: 3 to 4 hours max.

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