Common Rail Diesel Engine Technology

February 25, 2016 | Engine Info

Common Rail Diesel Engine TechnologyThe automotive and transport industries have undergone great improvements with the invention of different engine types. The design of the engines gives them qualities that favor their use in most of the applications such as transport, for example fuel economy and durability. Advanced materials are used in the manufacture of the engine parts, leading to optimal performance in the provision of best chemical, mechanical and thermal qualities.

One of such engines is the common rail diesel engine. It has is a direct fuel injection system, which provides for the highest energy efficiency as compared to other engines. The injectors are supplied by a common fuel rail, which is a pressure accumulator that stores the fuel at high pressure. The engine features a very high pressure, over 15,000 PSI fuel rail, that feeds each of the solenoid valves. For increased precision, other developments of the engine have piezoelectric injectors, which can support pressures of up to 44, 000 PSI. The piezoelectric valves also allow for the fine electronic control over the quality of fuel injection and time. High pressure ability of the engine leads to more efficient atomization of the fuel. The electronic control unit of the engine is capable of injecting small amount of diesel before the main injection (pilot injection) and this lowers engine noise, vibration, and explosiveness. Moreover, the system optimizes injection timing and quantity for differences in cold starting and fuel quality.

More advanced breeds of the common rail diesel engine are capable of performing five injections per stroke, thus providing the maximum power. The engines require a very short time to ignite and this depends on the temperature. The advanced aluminum alloy used in the manufacture of engine block ensures minimum heat loss and lighter weight, enabling the vehicles to go at higher speeds and conserve fuel.The common rail engine systems are designed to reduce the amount of harmful greenhouse emissions such as carbon monoxide, plodding and black smoking. This is also achieved by the electronic control of fuel injection.

However, there some situations under which the common rail fuel injectors fail. The failure depends on the mechanical soundness of the injector structure and the quality of fuel running through the injector. The mechanical failure of the injectors can result from high internal leakage or return flow. This can be indicated when the engine cranking time increases and low common rail pressure codes. At times, injection fails to occur and balance rates go high. Excessive injection is also among the problems. For proper efficiency and durability of the engine, care must be taken and immediate repairs should be done. Regular checks to the engine parts are also essential.

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